IV международный творческий конкурс «Пусть всегда будет солнце!» для детей, педагогов и воспитателей Казахстана, стран ближнего и дальнего зарубежья



National features of speech etiquette Kazakh, Russian, English

III международный творческий конкурс «Пусть всегда будет солнце!» для детей, педагогов и воспитателей Казахстана, стран ближнего и дальнего зарубежья

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Аманбаева Айым Руслановна ученица 11 класса,
Руководитель: Есимканова А. Д. учитель английского языка КГУ ОШ № 10 г. Караганда

National features of speech etiquette Kazakh, Russian, English

Speech etiquette is an important element for some national culture. In the language, speech behavior, stable communication formula, a rich national experience, the uniqueness of customs, lifestyle, living conditions of each nation were deposited. The national-cultural specificity of speech behavior consists of a system of factors that determine the differences in organization, functions and the way of mediating communication processes characteristic of a particular national-cultural community. Among these factors, the main ones, in our opinion, are the following:

1) factors associate with the culture and mentality of the people, that is, its mass consciousness, traditions and customs;
2) factors determine by the specifics of the language of a given community;
3) factors relate to the social situation and social functions (for example, etiquette forms of communication).

The study of the norms of speech etiquette in the modern world turns into a practical goal focused on achieving success in a specific act of communication: if necessary, draw attention to oneself, demonstrate respect, inspire confidence in the addressee, his sympathy, create a favorable climate for communication. However, the role of national speech etiquette remains important — knowledge of the peculiarities of foreign speech culture is a mandatory sign of fluency in a foreign language.

«Politeness and good manners are absolutely essential in order to adorn any other virtue and talents.»

Chesterfield Philip

Without basic skills of etiquette, there can be no culture of human behavior. Therefore, the ability to master etiquette is of paramount importance, and you need to master it in live continuous communication that takes place around us and with our participation.

The Kazakh language is especially peculiar for its peculiar vocabulary. In addition, euphemisms are used in the Kazakh language, which is identical to speech etiquette. Euphemism (Greek eu — good, phemi — I say) is a word or expression used instead of another, which for some reason is inconvenient or undesirable to pronounce due to its rudeness, offensiveness, impoliteness, etc. For example, «аяғы ауыр» — expecting a child instead of «жүкті» — pregnant.

The Kazakh language is rich in emotionally and expressively colored words. They are very expressive and express a certain value. These words impart various diminutive or derogatory meanings. The living, real environment determines our choice of words. In our language there are many words-references that we often use when communicating and talking on the street, in public places, and the range of these words-references is very wide. Through folk speech, feelings of affection, sincerity, emphasized politeness, benevolence, and kindness are conveyed through them. With the help of verbal formulas of etiquette, we express our attitude when meeting or parting, when we thank someone or apologize in various life situations. «Жақсы сөз — жарым ырыс» («Words that are good are a delight for the soul») — says folk wisdom.

The courtesy form is part of speech etiquette. The social significance of such appeals is well known. Therefore, we pay special attention to the form of courtesy. She speaks not only about the culture of behavior, but also about the education of linguistic consciousness. How dear to any of us, regardless of age and position, a simple wish, a kind word. We use the words «сәлеметсізбе» (hello), «рахмет» (thank you), «мархабат» (please), «ғафу етіңіз» (sorry) every day to make communication polite and friendly.

Each nation has its own specific features of conversion formulas. For example, the French use the words: monsieur, monsieur, madame, mademoiselle; Czechs — pan, pani; Germans — herr, frau, fraulein. In the modern Kazakh language, the form of polite treatment is complex and varied. Formulas of treatment are associated with the nature of relations between people, the determination of the mutual position of speakers — gender, age, social.

One form of courtesy is associated with the term kinship. The unique features of related names are due not only to the specific difference in the vocabulary of the Kazakh language, but to the peculiarity of the tradition of the people, based on the veneration of older people.

The traditional courtesy of older adults to younger ones was also often based on affectionate indication of age and potential kinship. In particular, the following nominations of kinship with the suffixes -м, (-ым, -ім), -шек, -қай: сіңлі — сіңлі + м — are used form of polite address of a woman to a girl or woman; іні — іні + м or іні + шек — a form of polite address to the younger brother; бала — бала + м — my child, бала + қaй — baby — to a small child. The words «қалқам», «қарағым», «шырағым» are also a form of the same address. It is also peculiar that friends and relatives are addressed by name with a generic term: Сейіт aғa, Айгүл әпке, Нұрлан інішек, Райхан apa, Жәмилә әже, etc. In the speech of adults, there are other forms of polite treatment, except for terms kinship. Adults in everyday life, referring not only to their elders, but also sometimes to their peers and young in age, use another form of polite treatment. It is formed by adding the affix -ке (-еке) to the first syllable: Әбіл — Әбеке, Сара — Сәке, Бакыт — Бәке, Есет — Есеке, Абдолла — Әбеке, Майдан — Мәке. Сағидолла — Сәке.

Kazakhs have developed a whole system of appeals to close people, distinguished by their benevolence, emotionality: жаным (my soul), бауырым (my brother), қымбаттым (my dear), алтыным (my sweetheart), көгершінім (my dove). The form of affectionate addresses in the Kazakh language is inseparable from polite addresses, and is also diverse. These forms complement each other. Traditional folk appeals were always based on the affectionate indication of a potential relative, as well as according to age.

The form of a polite address to the public: «халайық» — people, audience (from the word халық — people): құрметті халайық — a form of polite address to the audience, a large group of people; құрметті қонақтар (меймандар) — distinguished guests; аяулы азаматтар — dear citizens; қадірлі әріптестер — dear colleagues. Some kinship terms are also used as a form of polite address to the public: ағайын — relative; kinsman, relatives; қайынжұрт — relatives by husband or wife. These appeals are often used in combination with the words қымбатты or құрметті: құрметті ағайын, құрметті қайынжұрт. To express international politeness in diplomatic documents, the so-called etiquette, complimentary vocabulary is used: тақсыр, мәртебелім (your Excellency), мырза (lord).

Kazakh speech etiquette is one of the components of the national culture. Speech and speech etiquette are indicators of a person’s self-identification in society. And the development of speech etiquette should become a priority task for society in the near future. This will be a huge contribution to the preservation and further development of the Kazakh language.

Modern Russian is one of the world’s languages.

The advantages of the Russian language are determined by its huge vocabulary, polysemy of words, richness of synonyms, a variety of word formation methods, flexibility of stress, clear syntax.

The concepts of Russian national language and Russian literary language differ — the first of them is broader.

The Russian national language is the common Russian language. It covers all spheres of speech activity and includes the literary language with its functional styles, dialects, professional jargons and vernacular.

Russian literary language is a narrower concept. It is a language processed by masters of words: writers, public figures, scientists.

Unfortunately, in the speech of native speakers, so-called parasitic words are often encountered, which reflect the speaker’s uncertainty and irritate the listener. For example, words типа, конкретно, как бы, практически, в принципе, по большому счету, достаточно (like, specifically, as it were, practically, in principle, by and large, are enough). The task of every educated person is to strengthen his linguistic immunity by developing linguistic intuition, or linguistic flair, preventing the penetration of words-parasites into his speech.

The need for constant attention to the word is reflected in the proverbs and sayings of the Russian people: Слово не воробей, вылетит — не поймаешь — The word is not a sparrow, if it flies out, you won’t catch it; Что написано пером — не вырубишь топором — What is written with a pen cannot be cut out with an ax; Слово не пуля, а ранит — The word is not a bullet, it hurts; Хороша веревка длинная, а речь короткая — A long rope is good, but a short speech; Не всякое слово в строку пишется — Not every word is written per line.

Address by name and patronymic is an important national feature of Russian speech culture. The patronymic of a person is known already at birth, but comes into use when a person reaches social maturity. The middle name correlates with the form of address to you — Вы. In Russia they said: Как Вас звать-величать? — What should I call you? Exaltation, that is, address by patronymic, is a demonstration of respect for a person.

The addressee’s speech, addressed to the addressee, must be distinguished by communicative expediency so that the addressee correctly decodes it.

The main communicative characteristic of speech is accuracy, that is, the ability to clearly and clearly express one’s thoughts.

Another important communicative property of speech is comprehensibility, that is, intelligibility, accessibility for those to whom it is addressed. The richness of a language lies in the richness of its vocabulary. Researchers believe that the active vocabulary of a modern person does not exceed 7-8 thousand words, others believe that it is 11-13 thousand words. Linguists write with alarm about the impoverishment of the vocabulary of the Russian language.

In the course of oral communication, intonation plays a special role. It distinguishes oral speech from written speech, makes it richer and more expressive, gives it a unique individual character.

A pause is an important characteristic of speaking. She attached particular importance to K. S. Stanislavsky, believing that «a pause is the most important element of our speech and one of its main trump cards.» Pauses can be meaningful and empty.

Dominant features of Russian communicative behavior: high degree of sociability, emotionality, sincerity; priority of informal communication; reduced imperativeness of etiquette norms; low attention in the perception of the interlocutor’s speech; lowered level of politeness; high regulation of communication; high intransigence; priority of heart-to-heart conversation; the breadth of the information discussed; a high degree of evaluative information; short communication distance and admissibility of physical contact. From their point of view, a communicative model is a person who knows how to listen well and give advice on time, is able to convince the interlocutor and come to a consensus, does not impose his point of view, educated, erudite, friendly, frank, restrained, polite, optimistic, with a sense of humor , well mannered and tidy.

It should be noted a number of features that are absent in Russian communicative culture: the tendency towards political correctness; tendency towards democratization of communication; the desire to preserve the face of the interlocutor.

English speech etiquette is a set of special words and expressions that give a polite form to English speech, as well as the rules according to which these words and expressions are used in practice in various communication situations.

Communication etiquette in Britain is rooted in ancient and highly revered traditions, so deviating from it will be considered bad taste or even an insult. English speech etiquette is not a set of unnecessary restrictions, but rules applied daily. It would not be an exaggeration to say that English speech etiquette (however, like the speech etiquette of any other language) is one of the components of the forces of the great art to please and win over people. Consequently, English speech etiquette is of great practical importance and for this reason deserves special and careful study and constant improvement in it.

In an English-speaking society, cultural people communicate at three levels of politeness — formal, neutral and familiar.

The official level implies an atmosphere of formality and intelligent handling. Attention is paid to the social status of the interlocutor, his position, and not to personal merits, gender or age. Disrespect will be considered a departure from a formal tone, a manifestation of emotionality and a violation of personal boundaries. And disrespect is a direct path to disagreement, up to the termination of further cooperation.

At a neutral level of politeness, polite communication is carried out between strangers, as well as between those familiar people who are not in formal or familiar relations.

A familiar level of politeness is characteristic of communication in the family and family circle, as well as between friends and acquaintances.

Example. In winter, in the ice, the woman slipped and fell. Depending on who helped her up — a policeman, husband or a casual passer-by — the speeches addressed to her will be appropriate:

Are you all right, madam? — the policeman will ask politely.

Are you all right, darling? — a caring husband will worry.

Are you all right? — an unknown passer-by will ask with participation.

In the above situation, all three persons — a policeman, a husband and a passer-by — would ask a woman about the same thing, but would address her in different ways. This is the official form of address used at the official level of politeness and corresponding to the official style of speech. a familiar form of address corresponding to the familiar level of politeness and familiar style of speech. The sympathetic question «Are you all right?», Appropriately addressed to a stranger, also serves as a form of addressing him. The question «Are you all right?» conforms to a neutral style of speech and is polite, if appropriate, at a neutral level of politeness.

From the given example, it can be seen that it is very important to learn how to speak in different styles of speech, and for this it is necessary to know and notice the differences between them.

The specificity of the speech behavior of English-speaking people is such that expressions of gratitude occupy an important place among the typical turns of the speech etiquette of the English language, which are absorbed and used by them already in early childhood almost automatically. This brings a sense of mutual respect, warmth, goodwill into interpersonal communication and, therefore, has a «personality development» effect. On the contrary, the inability to adequately express gratitude in a timely manner can disrupt communication, negatively affect the relationship of the interlocutors.

Also, the specifics of the speech behavior of the British are the forms of apology, presented mainly in two varieties:
«Excuse me» and «I ’m sorry», and although they are forms of expressing an apology, they are not always used by native speakers for this very purpose. First of all, they use this form to express regret, grief, etc., therefore, this speech form is quite appropriate even in cases when the apologizing person has nothing to reproach himself with.

Of great educational value are also those units of speech etiquette that allow you to establish and maintain friendly contacts with other people, showing yourself as a pleasant interlocutor. In order to become such an interlocutor, you need to be able to notice the good in everything that concerns the other person:

1) his character and demeanor:
A: You are great!
B: Thank you a lot. You’re very kind.
2) things belonging to him, especially recently acquired:
A: Great looking cycle. You just got it?
B: Thanks. I got a really good deal on it too.
3) favorite pet:
A: Nice cat, Jane.
B: Oh, thanks a lot.
4) places where a person was born or lives:
A: Your house is lovely!
B: Do you really think so? That’s nice of you to say.
5) the characteristic features of the people inhabiting his hometown, country:
A: People in your country are so friendly.
B: I guess English people aren’t so shy.
6) distinctive features of his family members:
A: Is that your mother? Wow, he’s really beautiful, and so young looking.
B: Thanks. You know she is ten years younger than my father.

Etiquette norms of treatment are closely related to the distance of communication. It is known that address by name corresponds to intimate (0.5 m) or personal (0.5 — 1.2 m) distance, and address by name or official title — with social (1.2 — 3.5 m) distance. Maintaining personal distance (addressing by name, using the personal pronoun «you», using jargon, elliptical constructions, relying on common knowledge that unites interlocutors and at the same time separates them from other people) is a symbol of group belonging. For example, if people are equal in status, but unequal in age (for a generation or more), then the elder may refer to the younger by name, and the younger is in a difficult situation: referring by name is not entirely convenient, referring to the official title is also inappropriate, because it creates associations of emphasized inequality or negative attitudes. The only way out is to resort to «zero treatment». Such an address is often used in English-language communication between relatives by property: this is how they address the parents of the wife or husband (address by name — ignore the difference in age, apply by title — question the warmth of family ties).

There are significant differences in the formulas of speech etiquette of the three studied languages. In the Kazakh language, attention is emphasized to the interlocutor, which is expressed in questions about his economy, health. There is a distinction in greeting between men and women. In Russian, when meeting, it is customary to wish health, and not ask about it.
In English, phrases for the most part do not carry a lexical meaning, but have a purely formal character.