V международный творческий конкурс «Поехали!» для детей, педагогов и воспитателей Казахстана, стран ближнего и дальнего зарубежья

 

Инклюзивное образование в Казахстане

 

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Сагидуллаева Гульжан Мейржанкызы

What are the consequences of studying in inclusive schools in Kazakhstan?
Sagidullayeva Gulzhan
Nazarbayev Intellectual School of Physics and Mathematics in Aktobe
Global Perspectives and Project Work
Urazalina A. K.
February 26, 2021

Каковы последствия обучения в инклюзивных школах Казахстана?
Сагидуллаева Гульжан
Назарбаев Интеллектуальная Школа Физико-Математического Направления Города Актобе
Глобальные Перспективы и Проектная работа
Учитель: Уразалина А. К.
26 февраля 2021 года

Abstract

This research paper examines the consequences of inclusive education in Kazakhstan. Due to the lack of awareness of the importance of this type of education in our society, children with disabilities are discriminated against and their rights are often violated. The information was collected through interviews and a surveys.

Referring to the collected data, we can say that inclusive education brings positive and also negative consequences on society and the lives of children with disabilities.  And to get rid of such negative consequences as (discrimination and social stigmatization), it is necessary to spread this term and make it known to all citizens.

Key words: inclusive education, inclusion, disabled students, education in Kazakhstan, the rights of students with disabilities.

Абстракт

В данной исследовательской работе рассматриваются последствия инклюзивного образования в Казахстане. Из-за недостаточного осознания важности этого вида образования в нашем обществе дети с ограниченными возможностями подвергаются дискриминации и их права часто нарушаются. Информация собиралась с помощью интервью и опросов.

Ссылаясь на собранные данные, можно сказать, что инклюзивное образование приносит как положительные, так и отрицательные последствия для общества и жизни детей с ограниченными возможностями.  И чтобы избавиться от таких негативных последствий, как (дискриминация и социальная стигматизация), необходимо распространить этот термин и сделать его известным всем гражданам.

Ключевые слова: инклюзивное образование, инклюзия, студенты с ограниченными возможностями, образование в Казахстане, права студентов-инвалидов.

Абстракт

Бұл зерттеу жұмысында Қазақстандағы инклюзивті білім берудің салдары қарастырылған. Біздің қоғамда білім берудің бұл түрінің маңыздылығын түсінбейтіндіктен, мүгедек балалар кемсітушілікке ұшырап, олардың құқықтары жиі бұзылады. Ақпарат сұхбаттар мен сауалнамалар арқылы жиналды.

Жиналған мәліметтерге сүйене отырып, инклюзивті білім беру қоғам мен мүгедек балалардың өміріне жағымды да, жағымсыз да әсер етеді.  Осындай жағымсыз салдарлардан (дискриминация және әлеуметтік стигматизация) құтылу үшін бұл терминді таратып, оны барлық азаматтарға белгілі ету қажетпіз.

Кілт сөздер: инклюзивті білім беру, инклюзия, мүмкіндігі шектеулі студенттер, Қазақстандағы білім беру, мүмкіндігі шектеулі студенттердің құқықтары.

Acknowledgment

I would like to express my gratitude to my scientific supervisor, Urazalina Ainagul Kenzhegalievna, for her valuable advice in planning the study and recommendations on the preparation of documentation. I am also very grateful to my parents and friends who supported me for several months. And of course, the participants of the survey and interviews, namely the students of the school of NIS Aktobe and the teachers and school staff. As well as the special nobility of the parent of a disabled student for his participation in the interview.

Introduction

The research topic is about a new phenomenon in Kazakh education system-inclusive education for children with disabilities. According to Tkachenko (2018), inclusive education is an education in which all children, regardless of their physical, intellectual mental, or other characteristics, are included in the general education system. Education is an inalienable human right. In life, children with disabilities face difficulties, or even the inability to get a good education. Today, the majority of disabled people receive secondary education either in special schools and boarding schools or at home. This leads to several problems such as isolation from society, discrimination, infringement of rights (Dikanbayeva, 2017)

According to Ramazanova (2020), Kazakhstan has ratified international documents that proclaim equal access to education for people with special educational needs:

Convention on the rights of the child (Resolution of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Kazakhstan of 8 June 1994);

UN Convention On the rights of persons with disabilities (Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated February 20, 2015, No. 288-V ZRK);

Convention on combating discrimination in education (law of the Republic of Kazakhstan No. 449-V of January 28, 2016). The Convention entered into force on 16 July 2016).

Unfortunately, a lot of people do not know anything about inclusive education in our country and that all laws have been ratified in our state (Menesheva, 2019). Some people may even think that this is wrong, thereby exposing the rights of disabled people to infringement. Inclusive education can be used to develop a unified educational process that takes into account the needs of all children and ensures that children with special needs receive an education. (Zyacko, 2017). This form of education does not displace but again brings together the traditional and developing forms in the system of special education. An inclusive approach helps to achieve success in educating children with disabilities and creates the opportunity for a better life. By implementing this direction in the education system, we can educate students on morality, kindness, and friendliness at the same time, the process of inclusive education will be the beginning of tolerance education in children.

Therefore, I believe that this problem is very relevant in our country, and it needs to be addressed. Because according to scientists and doctors, the number of children with disabilities is growing every year. If society understands how important this problem is, then we can finally put an end to discrimination and achieve many good results such as a barrier-free environment in Kazakhstan, getting rid of social isolation, and equal rights for all. After all, this is one of the main goals of our former President Nursultan Nazarbayev (2018).

I want to investigate this issue because quality education is the fourth goal of the SDGs. This should be implemented in all parts of the world, including in our country. And especially for students with disabilities. Moreover, I want to help disabled students because I understand that their life is not easy. For instance, moral pressure and discrimination in the community also affect the lives of students with disabilities and make life difficult for them.

From my personal experience, I can say that our society is still not familiar with the term Inclusive Education. For example, when I was in the 6th grade, a student who was disabled was transferred to a parallel class. Mentally, everything was fine with her, but she was sitting in a wheelchair for the disabled. Many students and their parents were puzzled and confused. And all the fault is that they were not familiar with what Inclusive Education is and that this is the norm.

To sum up, I want to say that because of these reasons, I want to solve and investigate this problem.

My research work provides information about inclusive education in Kazakhstan, as well as about the consequences of this type of education. The main goal of my research work is to solve such problems as an infringement of the rights of disabled children and getting rid of discrimination in our society.

Accordingly, my work is aimed at the following sub-questions:

1) What should the parents of a disabled student do to get their child accepted into the school?
2) Why do students with disabilities face problems in getting an education?
3) What solutions can be taken to eliminate (discrimination, isolation, stigmatization) against students with disabilities in our society?

As a result:
First of all, these questions will help me write my work clearly. Also, I want to influence the attitude of society towards disabled children. Moreover, most importantly I want to help our country achieve the status of a barrier-free environment.

Literature review

According to Denivarova (2015), inclusive education is an education in which all children, regardless of their physical, intellectual mental, or other characteristics, are included in the general education system.

As Dikanbayeva (2017) said, in inclusive education, it is not the child who must adapt to the learning process, but it is the nature and pace of learning to adapt to the needs of the child.

Also, the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N. A. Nazarbayev (2018) said: «We must pay more attention to our citizens with disabilities. For disabled citizens, Kazakhstan should become a barrier-free zone. We must take care of such people, of whom we have a lot. This is our debt to ourselves and society. The environment of an educational institution must adapt to the needs of children with disabilities, be „barrier-free“, as it must ensure the full integration of children with disabilities» (as cited in Menesheva, 2019).

Vice-Minister of education and science Zhakupova (2019) notes that the number of children with special educational needs in Kazakhstan who need inclusive education is growing every year. In 2017, 60,006 children with disabilities went to secondary schools, and in 2018 — 61,336.

Also, in the UN Convention, which was adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1989, was the Convention ratified by the government of the Republic of Kazakhstan in 1994, on the rights of the child states:

Article 23, paragraph 2

«1. States Parties recognize that a child who is mentally or physically handicapped should lead a full and dignified life in conditions that ensure his or her dignity, promote self-confidence and facilitate his or her active participation in society.

1.1 States should recognize the principle of equal opportunities in primary, secondary, and higher education for children, youth, and adults with disabilities in integrated structures. They should ensure that the education of persons with disabilities is an integral part of the General education system» (UN Convention, 2006).

Thanks to these rights, we can conclude that inclusive education is the full rights of children with disabilities, and every school should provide students with free education by the standards of inclusion.

As Thachenko (2015) said, inclusive education includes 8 principles:
«1. The value of a man does not depend on his abilities and achievements;
2. Each person can feel and think;
3. Everyone has the right to communicate and to be heard;
4. All people need each other;
5. Genuine education can take place only in the context of real relations;
6. All people need the support and friendship of their peers;
7. For all students progress may be rather in the fact what they can do than what they do not;
8. Diversity strengthens all aspects of human life.»

As it is shown in Human Rights Watch (2019) in Kazakhstan, inclusive education takes only the first steps, so Kazakhstan has several problems related to the introduction of inclusive education:

1. lack of specially trained teaching staff;
2. insufficient material and technical equipment of educational institutions;
3. physical access barrier;
4. lack of understanding on the part of society.

If the student with disabilities will receive education in secondary schools, he will become adapted, competitive, social, and self-confident because he will feel that his rights are not infringed. For example, thanks to the opportunity to interact with a wider range of people, including those who do not have health restrictions, a disabled student can become more social and open. And thanks to the opportunity to have psychological, psychological-social, correctional, and socializing support during the training period. (These types of support can and should be provided by professionals trained for inclusive learning.) Disabled children will feel more confident (Gaille, 2019).

However, as Human Rights Watch (2019) shows, this new phenomenon can have bad consequences, for example:

1. sometimes the introduction of a child with disabilities to regular class ends in psychological trauma for the child due to an untrained teacher and angry children;
2. a child with a violation requires special attention from the teacher, which may affect the level of education of other children;
3. some schools do not have special equipment or equipment for the full-fledged work of the child;
4. not always an objective assessment of the student’s knowledge (often overestimated) by the teaching staff, due to the manifestation of leniency towards him due to his health condition;

As we can see, inclusive education has both good and bad consequences. To overcome these negative consequences, our state is doing everything possible, and I sincerely believe that in the future we will not have bad consequences and thoughts about inclusive education. Since several changes and the development of inclusive education are already being carried out. In his message, ex-President of the Republic of Kazakhstan Nazarbayev (2018) said «Now I instruct the Government to allocate 58 billion tenges for these purposes. And this allocated money should be spent on special equipment (elevators, strollers, toilets for people with disabilities) for schools and training tutors for inclusive education».

For instance, the national scientific and practical center for the development of special and inclusive education informs about the planning of events held from November 16 to 25, 2020 (as cited in Пресс-релиз, 2020). From November 16 to 25, 2020, «the national scientific and practical center for the development of special and inclusive education» will host advanced training courses for social teachers of psychological, medical, and pedagogical consultations. The aim of the courses: training and professional development of social workers psycho-medico-pedagogical consultations in matters of socio-educational survey and counseling of families of a child with disabilities.

Methods

The purpose of the research work was to study the consequences of inclusive education in schools in Kazakhstan, as well as to identify the causes of several problems, such as discrimination and infringement of the rights of students with disabilities. To identify the consequences of inclusive education, I turned to primary and secondary sources of information. To improve the quality of paperwork and get a good and clear result, I used mixed methods.

For background information (context), I used secondary sources. To obtain accurate and reliable information, all resources were checked and passed through the steps for evaluation of credibility criteria for identifying the reliability of sources. I read a lot of articles and identified some details that were little discussed and opened.

For example, Human Rights Watch (2019) shows that inclusive education can have bad consequences, for instance:

1. sometimes the introduction of a child with disabilities to regular class ends in psychological trauma;
2. Misunderstanding of parents of healthy children.

And as we can see there is no evidence of why it happens. From this, I chose some questions and decided to pay more attention to them. And I included these questions in the future survey and the interview.

During the research, I used methods to collect information such as a survey, which is considered quantitative. I chose the survey because it has many advantages (Si, 2020). First, it can be created in a variety of different ways and free programs. Secondly, it is also very quick to create. Thirdly, it can be done in a variety of ways: offline, online, mail, email, telephone, face-to-face, and so on. Besides, I used the survey to get statistics, to find out how many people have experienced this problem.

To collect quantitative data, I developed the survey in Microsoft forms. The survey consisted of 7 multiple-choice questions and 1 question with a 5-point scale response. The aim was to conduct an anonymous survey involving 50 respondents. I sent a link to our school email «Outlook» and encouraged students and teachers to participate in my survey. I chose students and teachers of our NIS school as respondents, as I believe that the research question will interest them and they will answer the questions more responsibly. I also posted a survey on my Instagram blog to get different responses from my friends and followers.

Then, for the qualitative method, I conducted several interviews as a primary source because it has many advantages (Koshy, 2005). First reason: the interview offers flexibility and the interviewer can change the questions during the conversation according to the interviewee’s answer. Moreover, transcripts of recorded interviews provide powerful evidence. Also, with the help of interviews, the topic is widely disclosed, and real-life examples and experiences from the life of the interviewee are included.

In the next stage, I chose 5 people for the interview. Then I contacted each interviewee in «Whats’up». Two people took the interview in the Russian language, 1 in Kazakh, 1 in English. I believe that the answers to the interview I conducted are reliable. Because first of all, the interview is answered by adults and those who have faced these questions in life (parents of students), as well as specialists who are engaged and familiar with inclusive education. Each interview lasted 15-20 minutes, and I used 6 open-ended questions to get comprehensive answers about their attitude to the issue.

The first limitation is that due to the fact that our society is under quarantine, we had to take interviews online. In addition, 1 out of 5 selected respondents refused to participate in the interview, because of the busy schedule.

Also, the most difficult thing for me was writing the transcript. Since the interview was online, it was difficult to understand some of the words, as the connection was sometimes lost. But thankfully, I took notes while interviewing as I expected such an issue would happen for it is commonplace in the online environment.

And if we talk about the limitations and difficulties during the survey, it is that not everyone responded to the request to take the survey. Also, doubts about the correctness and reliability of the answers, since the user could answer informally. In addition, a misunderstanding of the questions may lead to the respondent falsely clicking the answer. But I think my questions from the survey were clear and everyone answered them with understanding. Before conducting the survey, I conducted a pilot test among my classmates. Then, everyone replied that the questions in the survey were clear and they had no difficulty answering them. Besides, my survey was not that big, and it did not take a long time to answer. Therefore, I believe that the respondents answered with responsibility. Despite the above limitations, I was able to correctly collect the information using quantitative and qualitative methods, and I believe that the data collection was successful.

Results

After data collection, the next step is to analyze all the responses from qualitative and quantitative methods and data from the internet. The Internet research data was very informative, as everything found was relevant and useful for the study of this problem. The main literature has already been described in the «Context» section.

First of all, to get quantitative information, I started analyzing the responses from the survey. As I mentioned in the methodological section, 53 respondents took part in my survey.

To collect useful and relevant ideas on the given topic, respondents were asked the same 8 questions in the survey related to the topic of inclusive education. To start with, for the collected data to be accurate, it was necessary to find out the target audience: 26 people were under 18, 13 people who were 18-25, 10 people who were 25-50, and 4 respondents who were over 50.

Then the respondents were asked about the meaning of inclusive education: out of 53 people, 32 answered «yes», and 21 of them answered «no». This shows that 60% of them are familiar with this term, and 40% do not know what inclusive education is.

Besides, not every respondent in the survey is aware of the problem of the situation in Kazakhstan in the field of education. For example, when asked about the introduction of inclusive education in Kazakhstan, 25 out of 53 people said that they know, and 27 people said that they do not know. That is, as we can see, more than half of the population does not know that this type of education exists in our country.

Further, 98% of people answered the question that requires a full answer.
44% of people, answered yes to the question «Should or should not students with disabilities study together with healthy students? And why?»

Most people said that it depends on whether the school can give children with disabilities a suitable education. For example, the presence of elevators or the presence of other methods of upbringing or development of the child. They also noted that we should not forget that there are a lot of people in the school, and this can have a bad effect on a person who is not as functional as others. Having a good psychologist can also be a good aspect in this matter. In addition, many people answered that it would be useful for healthy and limited children to study together because limited children should not be deprived of attention and communication, they should be able to interact with people, and healthy children studying with such children will bring up good individual human qualities.

But there are also opposite answers. For example, some responded that co-education of children with disabilities negatively affects the effectiveness of teaching healthy children. Also, because people with disabilities need additional care during the lesson, it will be useful to create a comfortable environment for them. Also, due to discrimination and bullying by schoolchildren, which people with disabilities face, the child’s condition can only worsen.

Most of the survey participants rated the effectiveness of inclusive education by 2.5 out of 5. This shows that people are only half satisfied with the effectiveness of inclusive education.

Further, the participants selected the following possible options for the impact of inclusive education on society.

When studying the possible consequences, the following were selected:

35-chose equal rights for all;
23 «barrier-free society;
27- no discrimination;
14-lack of understanding by parents of healthy students;

Then, the following possible solutions to the problem of inclusive education were selected by participants:

• opening and providing schools that meet the standards of inclusive education;
• conducting special psychological work with healthy children and their parents to get rid of misunderstanding;
• Training of strong teachers staff specialized in inclusive education;

Interview

All the results taken from interviews were useful and allowed to consider many points of view. All transcripts of interviews are set out in Appendix 2,3,4,5. Taking into account the fact that completely 4 different people were interviewed, there were many similarities in the responses and possible solutions. In General, everyone answered openly, giving several background examples and explaining their point of view by referring to their knowledge. Almost all interviewees have positive opinions about inclusive education and believe that this problem is very relevant today. They also noted that everyone has the right to equal opportunities.

There are some key moments from the taken interviews:

• Almost all interviewees said that disabled students have access for free medical care and free education.
• One interviewee said that he was neutral about inclusive education. Since there are also disadvantages of this type of education. Such as discrimination and negative influence on each other: healthy children and children with disabilities (Parent of healthy student, 35).

Also, to enrich the previous answer, the respondents were asked about the attitude of parents of healthy children to inclusive education. Because the parent of a healthy student was among the interviewees, I had the opportunity to receive a clear answer.

«My opinion as a parent of a healthy student is neutral. But I am somewhat against it because I think it is wrong that ordinary children and children with disabilities will study together. Since they can badly affect each other» (Parent of healthy student, 35).

Then, the participants were asked what measures should society take to prevent several problems (such as discrimination, social stigmatization, etc.) in inclusive education.

The respondents said that:

• First of all, it is necessary that as many people as possible learn what inclusive education is. To do this, we need to shoot social videos on this topic, write articles, and place ads in banners
• To avoid discrimination and infringement of the rights of children with disabilities, it is necessary to conduct psychological work with healthy children and their parents.
• It is necessary to mentally prepare children with disabilities for the upcoming type of education. Then, one of the most important measures is to build a strong teaching staff. And to do this, we need to open and sponsor educational institutions, since our pedagogical institutes still do not have a course on inclusive education.

From these answers, we can conclude that the respondents say that the main problem of inclusive education is that people are not familiar with and do not understand what this type of education is. And to solve this problem, the interviewees recommend familiarizing the people with this term (thanks to the above measures).

Finally, for the question about the outcomes of inclusive education, the interviewees almost answered the same way.

• Children with disabilities will first of all be socially adapted thanks to the inclusive approach. They will also be less dependent on other people in the future, as they will be more experienced and open. And healthy children who will study together with disabled children, they will be more tolerant, reserved, and most importantly will know that all people in the world are the same and that you can not infringe on people looking at their physical and moral capabilities.

Conclusion

Inclusion covers the deep social aspects of school life: it creates a moral, material, and pedagogical environment adapted to the educational needs of any child, which can be provided only in close cooperation with parents, in close team interaction of all participants in the educational process (Abdullina, 2020). Here, in this field of education, people should work who are ready to change together with the child and for the sake of the child, and not only the disabled student but also the most ordinary.

To summarize the results of the research work, it is necessary to answer the following questions:

1) What should the parents of a disabled student do to get their child accepted into the school?

According to the law, each school is obliged to accept a child with special needs, they do not have the right to refuse. However, many parents do not know their rights and as soon as they hear the first refusal, they turn around and leave. The school must accept and create conditions. If this school does not have a tutor, parents can contact the headteacher or the director with a request that the child is allocated an assistant. The school administration, in turn, should ask the Department of Education to allocate a rate and then hire a specialist. Also, they need to ask the school to provide a barrier-free environment, including the availability of ramps, equipment of entrances, classrooms and toilets by universal standards.

2) Why do students with disabilities face problems in getting an education?

As mentioned in the results section, many children with disabilities face problems such as discrimination and human rights violations, because our society is not fully familiar with this type of education. Because the public does not understand what this type of education is, many people have false information that it is wrong and has many disadvantages. For example, parents of healthy children are afraid that teaching their children with disabled children will affect the psyche of a healthy child and negatively affect them. Besides, due to the lack of funding and the lack of equipped schools, these obstacles have a negative impact on children with disabilities.

3) What solutions can be taken to eliminate discrimination, isolation, stigmatization against students with disabilities in our society?

To get rid of these problems of our society first of all, as mentioned in the results section, it is necessary to expand the concept of the term «inclusive education» as much as possible. Secondly, to sponsor and equip all schools following the standards of the new technological generation. Thirdly, build a strong teaching staff. Since it is teachers and educators who will work with children with disabilities, as well as with healthy children, they will establish contact between the two parties and implement an inclusive environment.

To answer the main research question «What are the consequences of studying in inclusive schools in Kazakhstan?», it is necessary to consider all the answers from the methods of data collection.

In general, the results of the research showed that inclusive education helps students with special educational needs:

•provides appropriate role models for their age group in the face of their peers;
•creates learning opportunities in a realistic environment;
•helps develop communication, social, and academic skills, and provides equal access to learning;
•allows them to increase their self-esteem and feel like a part of the whole; •expands opportunities for establishing new friendships.

For students with typical development:

•creates a suitable environment for fostering respect for differences and diversity;
•expands opportunities for establishing new friendships;
•provides incentives for cooperation;

But before we can willingly begin the development and dissemination of inclusive education, first of all, we need to get rid of undesirable consequences. The most important thing is to spread this term and make it known to all citizens. If everyone knows what inclusive education is, then people will not be against its development in our society.

Having analyzed all these aspects of inclusive education and its consequences, it can be concluded that this topic is very relevant and important for our society and the education system. Thus, in the future, I want to publish this work in a wider range. To do this, I will try to post this on the Internet, as well as on social networks.

In my opinion, this research paper is well written, but there are still some omissions in the information since only 4 people were interviewed. Therefore, there was little information to refer to. And in order to get rid of them, I believe that I will continue to explore this topic more deeply in the future. For example, I will participate in various conferences at school and I also plan to participate in a city conference called «MAN- Small Academy of Sciences» in the field of social science and education. Besides, if I had the opportunity to interview Kazakhstan’s experts with experience in inclusive education, I could give a lot of useful information about this type of education to our teachers. Also, thanks to this, I believe, an impetus will be given to the development of inclusive education in our country.

References

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Dikanbayeva, R. (2017, November 3). Основные направления развития инклюзивного образования в Казахстане. https://clck.ru/SHfne
Denivarova, N. V., & Abdresheva, M. K. (2015). Some peculiarities of inclusive education in Kazakhstan. http://vernadsky.tstu.ru/pdf/2015/03/20.pdf
Gaille, L. (2019, May 23). 15 Pros and cons of an inclusion classroom. https://vittana.org/15-pros-and-cons-of-an-inclusion-classroom
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Zhakupova, F. (2019, August 27). Инклюзивное образование: как в Казахстане учат детей с особыми потребностями. https://informburo.kz/cards/inklyuzivnoe-obrazovanie-kak-v-kazahstane-uchat-detey-s-osobymi-obrazovatelnymi-potrebnostyami.html
Пресс-релиз. (2020). https://special-edu.kz/755-press-reliz.html

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